Water Treatment Plant- 100 % Practical Approach, Site Images, Basic Process

Water Treatment plant

A water Treatment Plant is the basic unit to get clean water for domestic purposes. As you know Impurities are more in surface water compared to groundwater.  The impurities contain germs, bacteria, lead mercury, and many harmful chemicals. So to make it drinkable, these all are free from drinkable water. 

And all this treatment happens in the water treatment plant. In this blog, you’ll know each and every step. Here we are presenting practical knowledge with models, sites, laboratories, and awesome explanations with Images. 

Sometimes it needs a Domestic water treatment plant. A bigger Treatment has the advantage of having a much larger treatment facility (for a larger population), which would be the ability to use such sludge in anaerobic digesters for methane, which in turn power generators to operate the treatment facility, with maybe even a gas/power surplus available. 

You’ll know from the intake point to the endpoint how it works. 

Raw water Reservoir

In this. through the canals water (From different sources, domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater) comes and collects in the reservoir. 

Sewage treatment

Raw Water Intake Pump House

Raw water pumping station Known as the intake well. From this tank, water will be lifted and taken to the Treatment Plant. From this point, the treatment process starts. 

In this well, the Vertical pipes lift the water and through the transmission lines, water is sent to the water treatment plants. 

Pumping Station

Top view of the Water Treatment Plant 

Waste water treatment plant

Where you can see the two Ponds and other structures, which we’ll discuss later one by one. The bigger size circle diagram is known as the Clariflocculator.  Also, you’ll see the sludge digestor near.


Process WTP (Water Treatment Plant)

Inlet Chamber

Where flow meter is installed to read how much flow is coming, turbidity, PH, and chlorine content of the raw water. 

Flash Mixer

When the water reaches the Water treatment plant, Alum (Aluminum sulfate) and Chlorine are added. Alum works as a flocculant which helps in coagulation. Due to this Sand particles and other heavy particles settle down in the tank. In the below figure, mixing is taking place. 

Also, Lime requires to be added along with alum so as to reduce the acidity of water. 

Alum and chlorine are not added to water before passing water to Clariflocculator.

Flash Mixer

Clariflocculator Sludge

The Chlorine mixed water is sent to the Clariflocculator. In this tank, there are two circular Divisions, Inner and outer chamber. 

How this works. To know that, you should know the structure of this tank. in the below points are explained briefly. 

Flocculation Tank

Inner circulation Tank

In this part, the chlorine-alum mixed water enters from the bottom and holds there for a long time. Here the chlorine and alum mixed well. After this the reaction takes place and the light waste particles get heavier and try to settle down but due to the coming water from the bottom, they are made to escape to the bigger circular tank through the notch.

Outer circulation Tank

The outer tank acts like the sedimentation tank. In this tank, water is in a still condition so that waste particles settle down slowly. 


Water Collection Tank


The clean water collected in the small trench made around the outer circle periphery. 

There is a machine fitted in the circular area to remove the mud and waste particles. It rotates slowly around the whole outer circle. A blade or scraper is attached to the machine to remove the mud and all waste things. after collection of all this, it picks and leaves in the outlet. It completes 1 Rotation in 2-3 Hours. 

Sedimentation Tank

Rapid Gravity Filter

Water treated from the Clarifier is sent to the Rapid gravity Filter. In the rapid gravity filter, impurities are removed and microorganisms and bacteria are also involved. The rapid gravity filter has to be cleaned within 24 hours.

Sand and gravel are collected and water has to pass through them. water filters out from the Rapid gravity filter. To wash it, Air pressure is also available. The backwashing process is adopted in the rapid gravity filter. 

After water filters out from the Rapid Gravity filter, you get the Clearwater which has a turbidity of approximately 4 NTU ( Before it was like 20 NTU). After that water is discharged to the distribution system. 


Clean Water 

Sodium hypocrite solution is added in freshwater tanks after treatment for disinfection of water before water supply.

Sludge Thickener 

water treatment Sludge Thickener

Now it is considered that not even one unit of water gets wasted. So to remove the mud water, muddy water is sent to the Sludge Thickener where with the help of a Centrifugal Pump water and mud are separated. Water gets separated and again sent to the filter Plant. 

Estimated cost for the small-level unit

Generally, it depends on many factors, but the estimated cost would be almost 40-50 lakh. 

This is the whole journey of the Water Treatment Plant process

Also, Read

Design Septic Tank- At Low cost & No need to clean for life with 2 chambers less space

Home Boundary Wall Design- Under 50 Thousand


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *